In determining what conduct is attributable to the State under the international law of State responsibility, we normally work from specific behavior of particular government officials acting alone or in concert. Because the abstract "State" acts only through "agents" in control of the State or some part of its apparatus, any such acts of those individuals are attributed to the State if done under actual or apparent authority of the State. Responsibility of the State engages when such conduct causes harm in breach of international obligation.
Christenson, Gordon A., "Attributing Acts of Omission to the State" (1990). Faculty Articles and Other Publications. 171.